Securing Water for Food (SWFF) in India: greywater treatment in villages of Ketti Valley, Tamil Nadu for reuse in agriculture
26 July 2018
Sanitation action plan and technology demonstration(s) for 30 municipalities in Bangladesh
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Small-Scale Sanitation Scaling-Up (4S): developing evidence-based policy recommendations in India and Nepal

Small-Scale Sanitation in South Asia

Since 2016, a research consortium comprising Eawag, the Nepal-based NGO ENPHO (Environment and Public Health Organization), BORDA, IIT Madras and CDD Society has been working on the Small-Scale Sanitation Scaling-Up (4S) project in India and Nepal, assessing more than 300 sanitation systems.

First Comprehensive Evaluation

Eawag/Sandec partnered with the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras and BORDA to carry out the 4S project—the first systematic assessment of small-scale sanitation systems in South Asia. The project aims to evaluate and learn from up to 400 existing small-scale sanitation systems, in order to provide sound empirical evidence for future small-scale sanitation sector investments in South Asia. It is the first comprehensive evaluation of the small-scale sanitation sector in South Asia.

The main goal is to provide evidence-based policy recommendations for improved system design and operations and maintenance (O&M).

These recommendations will inform strategic and financial decision-making, thus accelerating access to treatment of used water and sludge in South Asia.

As part of this study, a total of 9,497 sewage and septage treatment plants (SSTPs) were catalogued from various sources (project partners, government websites, private players, literature and right to information requests). Of these, 318 SSTPs across India were visited in person for qualitative performance assessments, and detailed water quality studies were undertaken for 35 SSTPs. These formed the basis for the detailed studies on technical aspects of the project.


Research results were presented in March 2018 in Delhi. The policy brief is available from Eawag as a downloadable PDF.
Figure 1 on page 3 of brief shows the location of sites assessed in India.

Publications & workshop materials are also available from Eawag

5th April 2018 at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India

Since 2016, a research consortium comprising Eawag, the Nepal-based NGO ENPHO, BORDA, IIT Madras and CDD Society has been assessing more than 300 sanitation systems as part of the 4S project

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